Bone tissue engineering using a nanostructured bone substitute

Abstract: New therapeutic strategies are required for critical size bone defects, because the gold standard of transplanting autologous bone from an unharmed area of the body often leads to several severe side effects and disadvantages for the patient. Read this original research and sign up to receive International Journal of Nanomedicine here: http://www.dovepress.com/articles.php?article_id=19216
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Figure 6 Histological overview of the explants.

Figure 6 Histological overview of the explants.

Figure 1 Hematoxylin-eosin (A), collagen type I (B), and alkaline phosphatase (C) immunohistochemical staining in the 4-week group. Bone formation was only seen in the groups with MSC expanded in autologous serum or cell culture medium (*).

Figure 1 Hematoxylin-eosin (A), collagen type I (B), and alkaline phosphatase (C) immunohistochemical staining in the 4-week group. Bone formation was only seen in the groups with MSC expanded in autologous serum or cell culture medium (*).

Figure 2 New bone formation, degradation of NanoBone® and tissue ingrowth.

Figure 2 New bone formation, degradation of NanoBone® and tissue ingrowth.

Figure 3 Vascularization of the explants and cell proliferation.

Figure 3 Vascularization of the explants and cell proliferation.

Figure 4 Osteoclastic activity in the explants.

Figure 4 Osteoclastic activity in the explants.

Figure 5 Explant degradation and matrix remodeling.

Figure 5 Explant degradation and matrix remodeling.

Figure 7 New bone formation.

Figure 7 New bone formation.

Figure 8 Osteoclastic activity in the explants.

Figure 8 Osteoclastic activity in the explants.

Figure 9 Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy.

Figure 9 Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy.

Figure 10 Vascularization of the explants.

Figure 10 Vascularization of the explants.


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Figure 11 Proliferation of implanted cells.

Figure 11 Proliferation of implanted cells.

Quantum cryptographic photon detectors have been tested, and have received a green light for integration into nanosatellite testbed programmes.

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