This is a two column-table containing both text and illustrations. The left column is titled germ layer while the right column is titled “Gives rise to.” The germ layer in the first row is ectoderm. Ectoderm gives rise to epidermis, glands on the skin, some cranial bones, the pituitary and adrenal medulla, the nervous system, the tissue between the cheeks and gums, and the anus. This row contains three pictures. The leftmost picture illustrates several layers of yellow, oval-shaped skin…
fight-or-flight response More specifically, the adrenal medulla produces a hormonal cascade that results in the secretion of catecholamines, especially norepinephrine and epinephrine.The hormones estrogen, testosterone and cortisol, and the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin, also affect how organisms react to stress. This response is recognized as the first stage of the General Adaptation Syndrome that regulates stress responses among vertebrates and other organisms
Pheochromocytoma. A tumor of the adrenal gland that secretes catecholamines (norepinephrine, epinepherine, dopamine) in various proportions. 90% of the tumors occur in the adrenal medulla, but could be located in various other places around the body. Considered benign if it has not invaded the capsule or metastasized. Manifestations: paroxysmal hypertension in 45% of parients, tachycardia, diaphoresis, postural hypotension, tachypnea, cold and clammy skin, headache, angina, nausea.
Adrenal Gland Histology Adrenal Cortex -- the outer, firm layer comprising the larger part of the adrenal gland; it secretes many steroid hormones including mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, androgens, 17-ketosteroids, and progestins. Adrenal medulla: The inner portion of adrenal gland. (The outer portion is the adrenal cortex). The adrenal medulla makes epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline).