Al-Biruni is regarded as one of the greatest scholars of the medieval Islamic era and was well versed in physics, mathematics, astronomy, and natural sciences, and also distinguished himself as a historian, chronologist and linguist.
"Against The Grain: Al-Biruni the starting point for improving Hindu-Muslim relations in Malaysia" By Syed Farid Alatas http://www.theedgemarkets.com/my/article/against-grain-al-biruni-starting-point-improving-hindu-muslim-relations-malaysia
Muslim astronomer, mathematician, ethnographist, anthropologist, historian, and geographer. Al-Bīrūnī lived during a period of unusual political turmoil in the eastern Islamic world. He served more than...
Al-Biruni was among those who laid the foundation for modern Trigonometry. He was a philosopher, geographer, astronomer, physicist and mathematician. Six hundred years before Galgeo, Al-Biruni discussed the theory of the earth rotating about its own axis. Al-Biruni carried out geodisic measurements and determined the earth's circumference in a most ingenious way.