Cuitláhuac, 10th tlatoani of the Aztec Empire, brother of Moctezuma II. After being held captive by the Aztecs, Cortés ordered Moctezuma to ask his people stop fighting. Moctezuma told him that they wouldn't listen to him, and in turn asked him to free his brother Cuitláhuac so he'd convince the people to stop. Once freed, Cuitláhuac led his people against the conquistadors and successfully drove them out of Tenochtitlán on June 30, 1520. After ruling for only 80 days, he died of smallpox.
Aztec Three Faced Mask. c1300AD... "The three faces depict three phases in which human time. The central face is jovial and full of the vigor of youth, referring to the time when individuals are during their most productive in a society. The exterior mask has closed eyes, alluding to the opposite phase, death. In between is a period of no less importance, the state that arrives with experience: old age."
The Aztecs first emerged in Mexican history as a nomadic tribe in Northern Mexico. When the Aztecs saw an eagle perched on a cactus, they took it as a sign from the gods that they should settle in that area. So they established their capital city of Tenochtitlan in 1325 A.D. The Aztecs ruled their empire with an iron fist from Tenochtitlan, until Spanish conquistadors arrived in the early 1500s. Hernan Cortes conquered the Aztec empire in 1521, building Mexico City on the city's ruins. #3B
The Aztec empire was destroyed only two years after the Spanish invasions. War and disease ultimately ended the Aztec society. The Europeans also invaded North America and Polynesia. The fact that these societies had previously been secluded from all world contact proved to be a great disadvantage to them.