Machiavelli’s muse: Cesare Borgia (1476 – 1507). Cesare Borgia was the notorious Italian warlord and illegitimate son of Pope Alexander VI and his mistress Vannozza die Cattanei. A former bishop, then Cardinal turned General of his father’s Papal armies, he conquered much of Italy and earned a vicious and much feared reputation.This was Cesare’s scabbard.In Latin, it reads: ‘Effort Will Prevail Over Material’ and contains Cesare’s emblems along with the monogram CAESAR.

Machiavelli’s muse: Cesare Borgia (1476 – 1507). Cesare Borgia was the notorious Italian warlord and illegitimate son of Pope Alexander VI and his mistress Vannozza die Cattanei. A former bishop, then Cardinal turned General of his father’s Papal armies, he conquered much of Italy and earned a vicious and much feared reputation.This was Cesare’s scabbard.In Latin, it reads: ‘Effort Will Prevail Over Material’ and contains Cesare’s emblems along with the monogram CAESAR.

Cesare Borgia (1475-1507) as cardinal. August 17, 1498, Cesare resigns his Cardinalcy!

Cesare Borgia (1475-1507) as cardinal. August 17, 1498, Cesare resigns his Cardinalcy!

Profile of Cesare Borgia, watercolor drawing by Bartolomeo Veneto, formerly in the Hevesy Collection, Paris

Profile of Cesare Borgia, watercolor drawing by Bartolomeo Veneto, formerly in the Hevesy Collection, Paris

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