Afghanistan - The Durand Line refers to the 2,640 kilometers (1,640 mi) long porous border between Pakistan and Afghanistan. It was established after an 1893 agreement between Mortimer Durand of British India and Afghan Amir Abdur Rahman Khan for fixing the limit of their respective spheres of influence.
The colonial "Durand Line." The light-orange overlay shows the area where the Pashtun lives. In the 1800s, a British colonial officer named Mortimer Durand negotiated the border between the British Indian Raj and the quasi-independent nation of Afghanistan. He drew the border across the middle of the Pashtun areas, thus leaving Pashtuns to be minorities in both states. The "Durand Line," marked in red, became most of the border between modern Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Noshaq (or Nowshak) is the second highest independent peak of the Hindu Kush Range after Tirich Mir Peak and lies on the border between Badakhshan Province in Afghanistan and Pakistan. The north and west sides of the mountain are in Afghanistan whereas the south and eastern sides are in Pakistan. Noshaq is Afghanistan's highest mountain and is located in the northeastern corner of the country along the Durand line which marks the border with Pakistan.
How the colonial "Durand Line" set up Afghanistan's conflict: The orange overlay shows where an ethnic group called the Pashtun lives. In the 1800s a British colonial officer named Durand negotiated the border between the British Indian Raj and the quasi-independent nation of Afghanistan across the Pashtun areas, thus guaranteeing decades of conflict by forcing Pashtuns to be minorities in both states. Many Pashtun now belong to or support a mostly-Pashtun extremist group called the Taliban.