The colonial "Durand Line." The light-orange overlay shows the area where the Pashtun lives. In the 1800s, a British colonial officer named Mortimer Durand negotiated the border between the British Indian Raj and the quasi-independent nation of Afghanistan. He drew the border across the middle of the Pashtun areas, thus leaving Pashtuns to be minorities in both states. The "Durand Line," marked in red, became most of the border between modern Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Afghanistan - The Durand Line refers to the 2,640 kilometers (1,640 mi) long porous border between Pakistan and Afghanistan. It was established after an 1893 agreement between Mortimer Durand of British India and Afghan Amir Abdur Rahman Khan for fixing the limit of their respective spheres of influence.
How the colonial "Durand Line" set up Afghanistan's conflict: The orange overlay shows where an ethnic group called the Pashtun lives. In the 1800s a British colonial officer named Durand negotiated the border between the British Indian Raj and the quasi-independent nation of Afghanistan across the Pashtun areas, thus guaranteeing decades of conflict by forcing Pashtuns to be minorities in both states. Many Pashtun now belong to or support a mostly-Pashtun extremist group called the Taliban.
November 12, 1893 – The treaty of the Durand Line delineating the border between present day Pakistan and Afghanistan is signed by Sir Mortimer Durand, a British diplomat in British India, and the Afghan Amir Abdur Rahman Khan; the Durand Line has gained international recognition as an international border between the two nations.