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Enhanced brightness of 2,6-diphenylthiazolo[4,5-b]pyrazines by introducing double electron donating groups doi:10.1016/j.jphotochem.2015.08.018

Enhanced brightness of by introducing double electron donating groups

It helps me to think of  EAS (electrophilic aromatic substitution) groups like this. The charges listed are not really there-the carbons are not actually fully charged, the charge labels are there to illustrate areas of low electron density (+) and areas of high electron density (-). Recall that nucleophiles go for the (+) areas. This is why groups direct.  Electron donating groups=EDG Electron withdrawing groups=EWG Halides are technically EWG, but they act as ortho/para directors anyways.

It helps me to think of EAS (electrophilic aromatic substitution) groups like this. The charges listed are not really there-the carbons are not actually fully charged, the charge labels are there to illustrate areas of low electron density (+) and areas of high electron density (-). Recall that nucleophiles go for the (+) areas. This is why groups direct. Electron donating groups=EDG Electron withdrawing groups=EWG Halides are technically EWG, but they act as ortho/para directors anyways.

Glutathione (GSH) is composed of cysteine,glycine, Glutathione exists in reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) states. In the reduced state, the thiol group of cysteine is able to donate a reducing equivalent (H++ e-) to other unstable molecules, such as reactive oxygen species. In donating an electron, glutathione itself becomes reactive, but readily reacts with another reactive glutathione to form glutathione disulfide (GSSG). GSH is regenerated from GSSG by glutathione reductase (GSR)

Glutathione (GSH) is composed of cysteine,glycine, Glutathione exists in reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) states. In the reduced state, the thiol group of cysteine is able to donate a reducing equivalent (H++ e-) to other unstable molecules, such as reactive oxygen species. In donating an electron, glutathione itself becomes reactive, but readily reacts with another reactive glutathione to form glutathione disulfide (GSSG). GSH is regenerated from GSSG by glutathione reductase (GSR)

ELECTRON SHUFFLE: Shewanella bacteria generate energy for survival by transporting electrons to nearby mineral surfaces. Cytochromes (structure depicted above) on the bacterial outer membranes contain a number of heme groups that accept and donate electrons, allowing the charges to flow along the membrane. Cytochromes also line cellular appendages known as pili that can conduct charges down their length to other microbes or to the mineral substrate.

Discoveries of microbial communities that transfer electrons between cells and across relatively long distances are launching a new field of microbiology.

flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a redox cofactor, more specifically a prosthetic group, involved in several important reactions in metabolism. FAD, in its fully oxidized form, or quinone form, accepts two electrons and two protons to become FADH2 (hydroquinone form). The semiquinone (FADH·) can be formed by either reduction of FAD or oxidation of FADH2 by accepting or donating one electron and one proton, respectively.

flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a redox cofactor, more specifically a prosthetic group, involved in several important reactions in metabolism. FAD, in its fully oxidized form, or quinone form, accepts two electrons and two protons to become FADH2 (hydroquinone form). The semiquinone (FADH·) can be formed by either reduction of FAD or oxidation of FADH2 by accepting or donating one electron and one proton, respectively.

A reducing sugar is a chemical term for a sugar that acts as a reducing agent and can donate electrons to another molecule. Specifically, a reducing sugar is a type of carbohydrate or natural sugar that contains a free aldehyde or ketone group.  Reducing sugars can react with other parts of the food, like amino acids, to change the color or taste...

The Definition of Reducing Sugars

A reducing sugar is a chemical term for a sugar that acts as a reducing agent and can donate electrons to another molecule. Specifically, a reducing sugar.

Benefits of Antioxidants: Antioxidants help the body by slowing down the processes related to cell aging. Throughout day to day life the body is exposed to a variety of chemical, environmental, and physiological stresses. As a result, toxins build up. Antioxidants are the heroes in this microscopic story happening within the human body as antioxidants donate electrons to unstable free radical molecules, rendering them stable once again. Antioxidants boost brain function improve...

Top 5 Best Antioxidants & Their Health Benefits

Benefits of Antioxidants: Antioxidants help the body by slowing down the processes related to cell aging. Throughout day to day life the body is exposed to a variety of chemical, environmental, and physiological stresses. As a result, toxins build up. Antioxidants are the heroes in this microscopic story happening within the human body as antioxidants donate electrons to unstable free radical molecules, rendering them stable once again. Antioxidants boost brain function improve...

electron donating and withdrawing - Google Search

Activators and deactivators.

N-Heterocyclic Carbenes: Versatile Second Cyclometalated Ligands for Neutral Iridium(III) Heteroleptic Complexes

N-Heterocyclic Carbenes: Versatile Second Cyclometalated Ligands for Neutral Iridium(III) Heteroleptic Complexes - Inorganic Chemistry (ACS Publications)

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Copper-Catalyzed N-Alkynylation of N-tert-Butyloxycarbonyl (Boc)-Protected Indoles - Song - 2013 - Asian Journal of Organic Chemistry

DOI: 10.1021/acs.orglett.7b00562

DOI: 10.1021/acs.orglett.7b00562

One-pot synthesis of carbazoles via tandem C-C cross-coupling and reductive amination DOI: 10.1039/C5OB01952D

One-pot synthesis of carbazoles via tandem C-C cross-coupling and reductive amination DOI:

DOI: 10.1021/ol502072k

DOI: 10.1021/ol502072k