Giustizia e Libertà Flag-Giustizia e Libertà (Italian pronunciation: [dʒusˈtittsja e liberˈtaː]; English: Justice and Freedom) was an Italian anti-fascist resistance movement, active from 1929 to 1945. The movement was founded by Carlo Rosselli. Ferruccio Parri - who later became Prime Minister of Italy, and Sandro Pertini - who later became President of Italy were among the movement's leaders
António de Oliveira Salazar (1889–1970) founded and led the Estado Novo (New State), the authoritarian, right-wing government that presided over and controlled Portugal from 1932 to 1974. Its policy envisaged the perpetuation of Portugal as a pluricontinental nation under the doctrine of lusotropicalism, with Angola, Mozambique, and other Portuguese territories as extensions of Portugal itself. Salazar's government and its secret police PIDE repressed civil liberties and political freedoms.