European Union Flag. Motto: United in Diversity. Anthem: Ode to Joy. The European Union was awarded the 2012 Nobel Peace Prize for, according to the Nobel Committee, having "contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe."
19 November – The pound was devalued from 1 GBP = 2.80 USD to 1 GBP = 2.40 USD. Prime minister Harold Wilson defended this decision, assuring voters that it will tackle the "root cause" of the nation's economic problems. 27 November – Charles de Gaulle vetoed British entry into the European Economic Community again. 28 November – Horse racing events were called off due to the foot-and-mouth disease outbreak.
1957 Western Europe consolidates politically and economically. The European Economic Community is created in 1957 - the precursor to the European Union. The first members are France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands.