Figure 2: Subtypes of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors - the peripheral nicotinic receptors at the neuromuscular junction are of the N1 or Nm type and the central nicotinic receptors are of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholinesterase subtype (Nn or N2). All five (M1 to M5) muscarinic receptor subunits are present in the central nervous system. The peripheral muscarinic receptors are predominantly of the M3 subunit although the M2 subunit is also represented in the heart and exocrine…
Massage can play an important role in helping to manage the symptoms of many chronic illnesses. Individuals with Sjorgen's Syndrome may benefit from using facial massage as it stimulates the exocrine glands of the face -- the Parotid, Submandibular, Sublingual, and Lacrimal glands. This article by Lake Tahoe Massage Therapy illustrates how an individual can employ self massage techniques, so that they can play an integral role in their own self care.
Examples of exocrine glands include the sweat glands, salivary glands, mammary glands, and liver. The endocrine system is an information signal system like the nervous system, yet its effects and mechanism are classifiably different. The endocrine system's effects are slow to initiate, and prolonged in their response, lasting from a few hours up to weeks.
Holocrine glands are a form of exocrine gland and secrete their substances through apoptosis. As the cell grows it enlarges and manufactures intracellular vesicles, that are filled with whatever the secretion may be. As the cell nears its death, it ruptures and the secretion is made available to the outside. Thus, because they require cell death, the upkeep of the gland requires resupply of tissues and high rate of mitosis. The tissue type is stratified cuboidal, which aids in secretion.