Caliphate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. On 29 June 2014, the militant Islamist group formerly known as the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant declared territories under its control in Iraq and Syria to be a Caliphate, and demanded all Muslims pledge obedience to its leader, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, whom it referred to as Caliph Ibrahim
996-1021, Egypt. Tiraz fragment with birds. Linen tabby with silk tapestry. Pairs of confronted birds occupy the decorative band between two kufic inscriptions that name the Fatimid Caliph al-Hakim (ruled 996-1021).