Rebecca Davis Lee Crumpler (February 8,1831 – March 9, 1895) was an American physician. She was the first African American woman to become a physician in the United States. (Rebecca Cole was the second and Susan McKinney Steward the third.) Her publication of A Book of Medical Discourses in 1883 was one of the first by an African American about medicine.
Three African American students Samuel Ephesians Hammond Jr., 18, Delano Herman Middleton, 17 and Henry Ezekial Smith, 18 were killed by police on February 8, 1968. They were students at one of America's Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) South Carolina State University. Referred to as the Orangeburg Massacre. South Carolina Highway Patrol officers shot and killed protesters on campus on the evening of February 8, 1968.