(ECUADOR) officially the Republic of Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator” is a representative democratic republic in South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Ecuador also includes the Galápagos Islands in the Pacific, about 1,000 kilometers (620 mi) west of the mainland.
The current flag of Ecuador was officially adopted on September 26, 1860. The red, green and blue are the colors of Francisco de Miranda, the South American revolutionist and adventurer. Yellow is the color of the federation, red is said to indicate courage and blue symbolizes independence from Spain. The centered coat of arms is topped with a condor.
Independence was finally achieved by Simón Bolívar, the Venezuelan liberator who marched southward from Caracas, freed Colombia in 1819 and supported the people of Guayaquil when they claimed independence on October 9, 1820. It took almost two years before Ecuador was entirely liberated from Spanish rule.