Former slave John Wesley Cromwell (1846-1927) was an educator, lawyer, Republican, and journalist. He acquired his law degree at Howard University and likely was the first black attorney to argue before the Interstate Commerce Commission. He also published and edited the People's Advocate, a weekly newspaper, organized the Republican Party, and helped found the American Negro Academy.
Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach Company, (1955)is a landmark civil rights case in the United States in which the Interstate Commerce Commission, in response to a bus segregation complaint filed in 1953 by a Women's Army Corps (WAC) private Sarah Louise Keys, broke with its historic adherence to the Plessyv. Ferguson separate but equal doctrine and interpreted the Interstate Commerce Act as banning the segregation of black passengers in buses traveling across state line
On September 22, 1961, after six months of protests, arrests, and press conferences by the Freedom Riders, the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) finally outlawed discriminatory seating practices on interstate bus transit and ordered the removal of "whites only" signs from interstate bus terminals by November 1. Activists vowed to step up the pressure to enforce the ruling. #TodayInBlackHistory