Godfrey of Bouillon (c. 1060 – 18 July 1100) was a medieval Frankish knight who was one of the leaders of the First Crusade from 1096 until his death. He was the Lord of Bouillon, from which he took his byname, from 1076 and the Duke of Lower Lorraine from 1087. After the successful siege of Jerusalem in 1099, Godfrey became the first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, although he refused the title “king” as he said that title (i.e., “King of Jerusalem”) belonged to God.
The Siege of Jerusalem took place from June 7 to July 15, 1099 during the First Crusade. The climax of the First Crusade, the successful siege saw the Crusaders seize the city from the Fatimid Caliphate and laid the foundations for the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Crak de Montreal (Jordan) - built in 1115 by Baldwin I of Jerusalem. The knights of the castle controlled the commerce of the area, as pilgrims and merchants needed permission to travel past. Saladin, who invaded the kingdom in 1187, laid siege to Montreal for two years, but was unable to use siege engines because of the hill. It is said that, during the siege, the defending crusader knights sold their wives and children for food. The castle finally fell to Saladin in May 1189.
Kingdom of Jerusalem. The kingdom also inherited "oriental" qualities, influenced by the pre-existing customs and populations. The majority of the kingdom's inhabitants were native Christians, especially Greek and Syrian Orthodox, as well as Sunni and Shi'a Muslims. There were also a small number of Jews and Samaritans. The native Christians and Muslims, who were a marginalized lower class, tended to speak Greek and Arabic, while the crusaders spoke French, and other Western European…
Biblical archaeology; recent discoveries: Rare Crusader coin found in Jaffa. Martin Peilstöcker and Amit Re’em, unearthed an extremely rare coin in the area of Jaffa’s flea market. It dates to the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem (1099-1291), the feudal state created by the first Crusaders.