The chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) is an area of the medulla that receives inputs from blood-borne drugs, and communicates with the vomiting center to initiate vomiting. The CTZ is close to the area postrema on the floor of the fourth ventricle & is outside of the BBB. The neurotransmitters implicated in the control of nausea and vomiting include ACh, DA, histamine (H-1R), substance P, and 5-HT. The BBB is not as developed here, and drugs such as DA may stimulate the CTZ. ORs control the…
Amygdalar Gating of Early Sensory Processing through Interactions with Locus Coeruleus | Journal of Neuroscience
Midbrain Activation The periaqueductal grey and locus coeruleus conjointly act with another major half of the brain attached worry, anxiety, and panic attacks-the midbrain.
During acute opiate withdrawal there are usually severe problems with insomnia. This is probably due to a massive rebound activation of brain arousal systems, especially the noradrenaline projections from the locus coeruleus to the cortex. Sleep problems are more prolonged and probably more distressing in people withdrawing from methadone, and there is some evidence that this insomnia is still present at 6 months of abstinence. Sleep disturbance is a powerful predictor of relapse.