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There is evidence that NMDA receptor antagonists can cause a certain type of neurotoxicity or brain damage referred to as Olney's Lesions in rodents, although such damage has never been conclusively observed in primates like humans. However, adolescent cynomolgus monkeys that were injected daily for six months with the non-competitive NMDA antagonist ketamine showed decreased locomotor activity and increased apoptosis of cells in their prefrontal cortices.

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NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of anesthetics that work to antagonize, or inhibit the action of, the N-methyl d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). They are used as anesthesia for animals and, less commonly, for humans; the state of anesthesia they induce is referred to as dissociative anesthesia. Memantine is an uncompetitive NMDA channel blocker. Memantine is the first in a novel class of Alzheimer's disease medications acting on the glutamatergic system by blocking NMDA glutamate…

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Phencyclidine (a complex clip of the chemical name 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)piperidine), (PCP) and known colloquially as angel dust or wet, is a recreational dissociative drug. Formerly used as an anesthetic agent, PCP exhibits both hallucinogenic and neurotoxic effects. PCP is an NMDA receptor antagonist.PCP is an NMDA receptor antagonist. PCP, like ketamine, also acts as a D2 receptor partial agonist. D2 receptor antagonists (such as haloperidol) can be used in the treatment of PCP psychosis.

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Ketamine Is….. an NMDA receptor antagonist that is usually used in anesthesia in humans and animals.  Often  delivered as an infusion or intramuscularly, or as a cream or gel (often in combination with other analgesics), Ketamine is effective, at least in the short term, in treating several chronic pain states …

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Atomoxetine (Strattera) is a drug approved for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor or NRI. Atomoxetine inhibits NET, SERT and DAT with respective Ki values of 5, 77 and 1451 nM. In microdialysis studies it increased NE and DA levels by 3 fold in the prefrontal cortices but did not alter DA levels in the striatum or nucleus accumbens. Atomoxetine also acts as an NMDA-receptor antagonist at clinically relevant…

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