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NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of anesthetics that work to antagonize, or inhibit the action of, the N-methyl d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). They are used as anesthesia for animals and, less commonly, for humans; the state of anesthesia they induce is referred to as dissociative anesthesia. Memantine is an uncompetitive NMDA channel blocker. Memantine is the first in a novel class of Alzheimer's disease medications acting on the glutamatergic system by blocking NMDA glutamate…


There is evidence that NMDA receptor antagonists can cause a certain type of neurotoxicity or brain damage referred to as Olney's Lesions in rodents, although such damage has never been conclusively observed in primates like humans. However, adolescent cynomolgus monkeys that were injected daily for six months with the non-competitive NMDA antagonist ketamine showed decreased locomotor activity and increased apoptosis of cells in their prefrontal cortices.


Alomone Labs D-AP5, a competitive NMDA receptor antagonist.

bradycardia and Hypotension drugs nursing mnemonics


Nursing/Pharmacy Mnemonics and Tips: Where was this when I was studying for the PTCB Exam?


Ketamine Is….. an NMDA receptor antagonist that is usually used in anesthesia in humans and animals.  Often  delivered as an infusion or intramuscularly, or as a cream or gel (often in combination with other analgesics), Ketamine is effective, at least in the short term, in treating several chronic pain states …


Nursing Mnemonics and Tips: Adrenergic Antagonists (Beta Blockers)


Stopping anti-clotting medications in some patients with irregular heartbeats may raise the risk of stroke or blood clotting within a month, finds a new research.

Anticholinergic: low potency antipsychotics, oxybutinin, ipratropium Cholinergic: ACh antagonists (atropine, scopolamine), AChEIs (organophosphates) Opioid: Morphine, heroin, hydromorphone, etc Sympathomimetic: epinephrine, cocaine, amphetamine (Aderol), methylphenidate (Ritalin) Sedative-Hypnotic: Benzodiazepines, barbituates, “Z-drugs” (zopiclone, zolpidem), antihistamines