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NMDA receptor antagonist ... Can be used to treat resistant forms of Catatonia

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NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of anesthetics that work to antagonize, or inhibit the action of, the N-methyl d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). They are used as anesthesia for animals and, less commonly, for humans; the state of anesthesia they induce is referred to as dissociative anesthesia. Memantine is an uncompetitive NMDA channel blocker. Memantine is the first in a novel class of Alzheimer's disease medications acting on the glutamatergic system by blocking NMDA glutamate…

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Halothane (brandname Fluothane). Alkyl halide. General anesthetic. Inhaled. Start/maintain anaesthesia. Doesn't increase saliva, best when difficult to intubate. Not recommended for C-section. Replaced by sevoflurane & n/a commercially in US. Activates GABA(A) and glycine receptors. NMDA receptor antagonist, inhibits nACh and voltage-gated sodium channels, and activates 5-HT3 and twin-pore K+ channels.

Ketamine (Ketalar). Arylcyclohexylamine derivative. Gen Anaesthesia, start/maintain. Injected IM (50mgHCl/ml) for analgesic dissociative sedation w/n 5 min. Psychological reactions, hypertension, muscle tremor side effects. NMDA receptor antagonist; also acts on opioid receptors and monoamine transporters. Anesthesia use for children (sole anesthetic for minor procedures or induction agent followed by muscle relaxant and tracheal intubation), asthmatics, COPD, sedative for ER or war…

There is evidence that NMDA receptor antagonists can cause a certain type of neurotoxicity or brain damage referred to as Olney's Lesions in rodents, although such damage has never been conclusively observed in primates like humans. However, adolescent cynomolgus monkeys that were injected daily for six months with the non-competitive NMDA antagonist ketamine showed decreased locomotor activity and increased apoptosis of cells in their prefrontal cortices.

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Alomone Labs D-AP5, a competitive NMDA receptor antagonist.

Memantine is approved for the treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer’s. It is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. The NMDA receptor is one of several receptors located on the postsynaptic neurons in the hippocampus, which receive transmissions from the neurotransmitter glutamate. Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter that is associated with learning and memory, used by more than 80% of the neurons in the brain.

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Ketamine is a drug used in human and veterinary medicine, primarily for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia, usually in combination with a sedative. Pharmacologically, ketamine is classified as an NMDA receptor antagonist.

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