Whilst it is said that necessity is the mother of invention nature is increasingly the source of the necessary inspiration for human inventiveness. And so important is that nature-inspiration that its been developed as the discipline of biomimetics. Three items with a building construction theme admirably demonstrate this in action.  First we have Thomas Simmons et al. and their study of the folding of xylan onto cellulose microfibrils in plant cell walls. Cellulose is the primary…

Dragons, coconuts and skyscrapers

Whilst it is said that necessity is the mother of invention nature is increasingly the source of the necessary inspiration for human inventiveness. And so important is that nature-inspiration that its been developed as the discipline of biomimetics. Three items with a building construction theme admirably demonstrate this in action. First we have Thomas Simmons et al. and their study of the folding of xylan onto cellulose microfibrils in plant cell walls. Cellulose is the primary…

A Guide to Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

A Guide to Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

NMR Spectroscopy - Theory

NMR Spectroscopy - Theory

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: ethanol plotted as signal intensity vs. chemical shift. There are 3 different types of H atoms in ethanol regarding NMR.

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: ethanol plotted as signal intensity vs. chemical shift. There are 3 different types of H atoms in ethanol regarding NMR.

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)-- is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb & re-emit electromagnetic radiation. This energy is at a specific resonance frequency which depends on the strength of the magnetic field and the magnetic properties of the isotope of the atoms; in practical applications, the frequency is similar to VHF & UHF television broadcasts (60–1000 MHz). NMR allows the observation of specific quantum mechanical magnetic properties of the atomic…

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)-- is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb & re-emit electromagnetic radiation. This energy is at a specific resonance frequency which depends on the strength of the magnetic field and the magnetic properties of the isotope of the atoms; in practical applications, the frequency is similar to VHF & UHF television broadcasts (60–1000 MHz). NMR allows the observation of specific quantum mechanical magnetic properties of the atomic…

Over the past fifty years nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, commonly referred to as nmr, has become the preeminent technique for determining the structure of organic compounds. Of all the spectroscopic methods, it is the only one for which a complete analysis and interpretation of the entire spectrum is normally expected. Although larger amounts of sample are needed than for mass spectroscopy, nmr is non-destructive, and with modern instruments good data may be obtained from samples…

Over the past fifty years nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, commonly referred to as nmr, has become the preeminent technique for determining the structure of organic compounds. Of all the spectroscopic methods, it is the only one for which a complete analysis and interpretation of the entire spectrum is normally expected. Although larger amounts of sample are needed than for mass spectroscopy, nmr is non-destructive, and with modern instruments good data may be obtained from samples…

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