Giovanni Borgia, II Duke of Gandía (1475–1497) was the son of Pope Alexander VI and the brother of Cesare Borgia, Gioffre Borgia, and Lucrezia Borgia. Giovanni, also known as Juan or Joan, was the eldest of the Popes four children by Vannozza dei Cattanei. Due to a number of papal bulls issued after his murder, it is unclear whether Giovanni was born in 1476 or 1477, but it was long thought that he was the eldest son instead of Cesare.
Isabella depicted with darker hair, c. 1485Isabella I , commonly known as Isabel "the Catholic", a title granted to Ferdinand and Isabel by a papal bull in 1496, was Queen of Castile and León (Crown of Castile). She and her husband, Ferdinand II of Aragon, brought stability to the kingdoms that became the basis for the unification of Spain. expelled the Moors, and also sponsored the Columbus expedition to America
“This work helps chart, with numerous volvelles, the movements of the heavenly bodies by the methods of Regiomontanus. Published soon after the papal bull of 1586 forbidding astrology, Gallucci nonetheless asserts the importance of the rational, scientific investigation of the heavens.” Giovanni Paolo Gallucci, Speculum Uranicum, Venice: Damianus Zenarus, 1593.
Exsurge Domine (Latin for "Arise O Lord") is a papal bull promulgated on 15 June 1520 by Pope Leo X. It was written in response to the teachings of Martin Luther which opposed the views of the Church. It censured forty one propositions extracted from Luther's 95 theses and subsequent writings, and threatened him with excommunication unless he recanted within a sixty-day period commencing upon the publication of the bull in Saxony and its neighboring regions.
1560: The first children are castrated for use in the Sistine Chapel Choir. 1589: Pope Sixtus V issues a papal Bull approving the recruitment of castrati By 1625 all sopranos in the Sistine Chapel choir are castrati. During the 17th and 18th centuries in Italy, some 4,000 - 5,000 boys aged between 7 and 9 are castrated annually for the Church