By the fourth century AD, the predominant race in northern Scotland were the Picts, the name was coined by the Romans who referred to them as 'Picti' meaning 'painted ones', which referred to the Pictish custom of either tattooing their bodies or covering themselves with warpaint.
Cup and ring marks - Early people - Scotlands History Cup and ring is a form of prehistoric art found widely throughout the world from India to Brazil. The best Scottish examples are at Balnachraig (Kilmartin Glen, Argyll), Beauly (near Inverness), and Dalgarven Mill (near Kilwinning).
The earliest surviving mention of the Picts dates from AD297. In a poem praising the Roman emperor Constantius Chlorus, the orator Eumenius wrote that the Britons were already accustomed to the semi-naked "Picti and Hiberni (Irish) as their enemies."
Iona Abbey - Isle of Iona, Inner Hebrides, Scotland : One of the oldest and most important religious centers in Western Europe. In 563, [St.] Columba came to Iona from Ireland with twelve companions, and founded a monastery which grew to be an influential center for the spread of Christianity among the Picts and Scots throughout Scotland.