Ottoman Map of Malta, by Piri Reis. The Piri Reis map is a world map compiled in 1513 by the Ottoman admiral and cartographer Piri Reis. It used ten Arab sources, four Indian maps sourced from the Portuguese, and one (lost) map of Columbus. (Naval Museum, Istanbul).
In 1929, a group of historians found an amazing map drawn on a gazelle skin. The map shows the western coast of Africa, the eastern coast of South America, and the northern coast of Antarctica. The northern coastline of Antarctica is perfectly detailed. The most puzzling mystery of the map shows the coastline under the ice. Geological evidence confirms that the latest date Queen Maud Land could have been charted in an ice-free state is 4000 BC.