Berenguela I (c. 1179-1246), Queen of Castile (1217) in her own right. She was the daughter of Alfonso VIII and his wife, Eleanor of England. She was Queen of Leon (1197-1204) as the wife of King Alfonso IX. Her surviving children were King Fernando III of Castile-Leon, The Infante Alfonso, and The Infantas Berenguela and Constanza.
Fontfroide Abbey or l'Abbaye Sainte-Marie de Fontfroide is a former Cistercian monastery in France, situated 15 kilometers south-west of Narbonne near to the Spanish border. It was founded in 1093 by the Viscount of Narbonne. The abbey fought together with Pope Innocent III against the heretical doctrine of the Cathars who lived in the region. It was dissolved in 1791 in the course of the French Revolution.
Gilbert de Clare, 5th earl of Gloucester, and his father were among the 25 barons who pledged to enforce the provisions of the Magna Carta,& both were excommunicated by Pope Innocent III. During the 1st baron's war Gilbert first sided with Prince Louis of France, but after the Battle of Lincoln, he changed sides and joined his father-in-law William Marshall, supporting the young Henry III as king. Buried @ Tewkesbury Abbey.
The Crusades - were a series of religious expeditionary wars blessed by the Pope and the Catholic Church, with the stated goal of restoring Christian access to the holy places in and near Jerusalem. The Crusades were originally launched in response to a call from the leaders of the Byzantine Empire for help to fight the expansion into Anatolia of Muslim Seljuk Turks who had cut off access to Jerusalem.