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This table describes major factors influencing stroke volume. Preload may be raised due to fast filling time or increased venous return. These factors increase end diastolic volume and increase stroke volume. Preload may be lowered due to decreased thyroid hormones, decreased calcium ions, high or low potassium ions, high or low sodium, low body temperature, hypoxia, abnormal pH balance, or drugs (for example, calcium channel blockers). These factors decrease end diastolic volume and ...

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Nurse Nacole | The Nursing Channel: Book Recommendations - Memory Notebooks of Nursing!

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Axon with myelin sheath. Microtubule. Actin. Cadherins. Protein zero. Myelin, myelin, myelin. voltage gated potassium channels.

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Octopuses Edit Proteins to Beat the Cold

Octopuses Edit Proteins to Beat the Cold by ScienceNow: J. Rosenthal et al have demonstrated that the Antarctic octopus edits its RNA at nine sites, changing the amino acid sequence of potassium channels and enabling it to offset the inhibition of nerve cell firing by cold. #Octopus #Antarctica #Joshua_Rosenthal #RNA_Editing

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Spironolactone or aldactone is a potassium-sparing diuretic that gets rid of sodium and water in the circulatory system while saving potassium in the blood. It blocks aldosterone in the kidney which is responsible in regulating the salt and water balance in the body. In using spironolactone, you should watch out for headache, diarrhea, hyperkalemia, electrolyte imbalance, fatigue and GI disturbances.

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Action Potential A neuron can receive input from other neurons and, if this input is strong enough, send the signal to downstream neurons. Transmission of a signal between neurons is generally carried by a chemical called a neurotransmitter. Transmission of a signal within a neuron (from dendrite to axon terminal) is carried by a brief reversal of the resting membrane potential called an action potential. When neurotransmitter molecules bind to receptors located on a neuron’s dendrites, ion…

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ndeed, potassium channel–modulating agents have demonstrated antitumor efficacy. Potassium channels regulate cancer cell behaviors such as proliferation and migration through both canonical ion permeation–dependent and noncanonical ion permeation–independent functions. Given their cell surface localization and well-known pharmacology, pharmacological strategies to target potassium channel could prove to be promising cancer therapeutics.

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A cholinergic synapse uses acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter. A nerve signal opens a calcium voltage gated channel in the synaptic knob. Calcium enters and ACh is released and are obtained by the synaptic vesicles. ACh diffuse and binds to a ligand gated channel, allowing sodium to enter the cell and potassium to leave the cell.. The entering of the sodium depolarizes the plasma membrane.

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Graph showing ventricular action potential with delayed repolarization by potassium channel blockade. Potassium-channel blockers comprise the Class III antiarrhythmic compounds according to the Vaughan-Williams classification scheme. These drugs bind to and block the potassium channels that are responsible for phase 3 repolarization. Therefore, blocking these channels slows (delays) repolarization, which leads to an increase in action potential duration and an increase in the effective…

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Effects of 15 Hz square wave magnetic fields on the voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels in prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons. - PubMed - NCBI

Structural images shed new light on a cancer-linked potassium channel