Each hole is 24x24 The cages themselves hang from the PVC which allows the sides to extend further from the walls of the cages. The pans are made from wood, covered in a heavy gauge plastic to protect them. They are a single pan per level to keep rabbits from peeing in between trays onto rabbits below. They are attached by drawer slides. To clean them I just pull out the "drawer" lift out puppy pads, wipe down the plastic, replace the puppy pads or incontinence pads.