This map depicts the deployment of Rome's legions when Rome's first emperor, Augustus, died in 14 AD. Augustus and his successors distributed the Roman army along the frontier, ensuring that no single general had command of more than a small fraction of Rome's troops at any one time. And emperors reduced the soldiers' dependence on their commanders by paying them salaries from the imperial treasury.
The Roman Empire Many of Europe's languages and institutions date back more or less linearally to the Roman Empire. This map (see 39 more Rome maps here) shows the empire at its greatest extent under Trajan in 117 A.D. Rome ruled substantial portions of North Africa and the Levant that today would be considered non-European, while excluding most of Germany, the Nordic countries, and most of central and eastern Europe