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from Grand Strategy: The View from Oregon

Metaphysical Ecology Reformulated

Bronfenbrenner's Ecological systems theory- explains child development in terms of the reciprocal influences between children & environmental settings


Highway Code Signs Giving Orders Helpful and sometimes humorous videos and tips for those who want to learn to drive a car and for those who want to return to driving. Allan Wager of Wagers Driving School, Plymouth, Devon, UK can be contacted through his website at You can find him on Facebook too at


PR > B being repeated by reward. NR > B being repeated by removing an unpleasant stimulus. NR is important for escape/avoidance learning or avoiding something which is unpleasant – Avoidance learning involves both operant & classical conditioning. Punishment is aimed at weakening or suppressing a response– ++P reduces a B by assing stinulus (speeding ticket) --P removes a pleasurable stimulus (computer/toys)