2nd most common GU cancer, M>W, mean age 65yo, RF: cigarette smoking (60%), industrial dyes or solvents (15%), arsenic exposure, chronic cystitis, schistosomiasis, radiation, and cyclophosphamide use. Transitional cell carcinoma most common type. Gross, painless hematuria. Dx: cystourethrosopy, urine cytology, and CT with urography or IVP with renal ultrasound. Tx: resection of visible tumor for superficial cancer/radical cystectomy and chemotherapy.