Hattusa, in ancient Turkey, was first settled by the Hatti people, but when conquered ca. 1600 BCE, it became the capital of the Hittite Empire. In keeping with the militaristic ethos of the Hittites, by 1300 BCE, it was magnificently fortified. Situated on advantageous terrain, it was surrounded by double walls. On the ridge on the upper right is the "Acropolis" - the royal palace district. The city was destroyed in 1180 BCE during the Bronze Age Collapse.
Derinkuyu is a mysterious underground city that was found in Turkey 1963. It's 11 stories deep and was made to accomodate 20.000 people. Scientists believe it was built 700 years BC. The city could be shut from the inside with large, round stone doors, but what people where trying to protect themselves from is unknown. It's likely, however, that Christians for a period used the city to hide from the Romans. There are also theories that the city was used as a hiding place from the aliens.
Osman Hamdi Bey - Istanbul (1910). Bey (30 Dec 1842-24 Feb 1910) was an Ottoman administrator, intellectual, art expert, and also a prominent and pioneering painter. He was also an accomplished archeologist and is regarded as the pioneer of the museum curator's profession in Turkey. (Wikipedia)
Göbekli Tepe, Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey is a Neolithic hilltop sanctuary. It is the oldest known human-made religious structure. The site was most likely erected by hunter-gatherers in the 10th millennium BCE and has been under excavation since 1994 by German and Turkish archaeologists, Together with Nevalı Çori, it has revolutionized understanding of the Eurasian Neolithic period.
The origin of the St. Nicholas tradition goes back to Bishop Nicholas of Myra in Lycia (Turkey). Little solid historical information is known about Nicholas except that he was Bishop of Myra and died around A.D. 350.