Australia - Settlement to Federation

The colony of New South Wales was established with the arrival of the First Fleet of 11 vessels in 1788 under Captain Arthur Phillip. There were over 1000 settlers including 778 convicts. The fleet moved to Port Jackson on 26 January - “Australia Day”. By 1868, over 160,000 convicts had been sent to New South Wales, Van Diemen's land and Western Australia. Separate colonies were created - South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, Queensland in 1859 and the Northern Territory in 1863.
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Unloading camels, Port Augusta, 1890s. The curators estimate that between 1870 and 1900 more than 2000 cameleers and an amazing 15,000 camels came to Australia, largely from British India and Afghanistan. The cameleers were predominantly Pashtun, Baluchi, Punjabi and Sindhi. They spoke their own languages in Australia and religion was their common bond. Nearly all were young or middle-aged men.

Unloading camels, Port Augusta, 1890s. The curators estimate that between 1870 and 1900 more than 2000 cameleers and an amazing 15,000 camels came to Australia, largely from British India and Afghanistan. The cameleers were predominantly Pashtun, Baluchi, Punjabi and Sindhi. They spoke their own languages in Australia and religion was their common bond. Nearly all were young or middle-aged men.

Afghan cameleers played a significant role in opening up the inland of Australia's during the 1800s

Afghan cameleers played a significant role in opening up the inland of Australia's during the 1800s

Port Arthur Historic Convict Settlement, Tasmania, Australia | Flickr - Photo Sharing!  "The Port Arthur penal settlement began life as a small timber station in 1830. Originally designed as a replacement for the recently closed timber camp at Birches Bay, Port Arthur quickly grew in importance within the penal system of the colonies."  Port Arthur http://www.portarthur.org.au/index.aspx?id=12731

Port Arthur Historic Convict Settlement, Tasmania, Australia | Flickr - Photo Sharing! "The Port Arthur penal settlement began life as a small timber station in 1830. Originally designed as a replacement for the recently closed timber camp at Birches Bay, Port Arthur quickly grew in importance within the penal system of the colonies." Port Arthur http://www.portarthur.org.au/index.aspx?id=12731

1830-49 convict uniform. This image is attached to a great article describing the side seams being buttoned not stitched so the convict could dress without removing the leg irons.

1830-49 convict uniform. This image is attached to a great article describing the side seams being buttoned not stitched so the convict could dress without removing the leg irons.

Alfred Deakin (3 August 1856 – 7 October 1919), Australian politician, was a leader of the movement for Australian federation and later the second Prime Minister of Australia

Alfred Deakin (3 August 1856 – 7 October 1919), Australian politician, was a leader of the movement for Australian federation and later the second Prime Minister of Australia

Chinese street procession monster at Bendigo Easter Fair May 1, 1895. The goldfields had a large and important Chinese presence.

Chinese street procession monster at Bendigo Easter Fair May 1, 1895. The goldfields had a large and important Chinese presence.

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