Richard was born on 8 September 1157 in Oxford, son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine. He grew up with great battle and military abilities. However, as he became older, he joined a rebellion with his brothers against father in 1173. In 1183 when his brother Henry died, Richard got to heir to the throne and became a king.
How long he reined: He twice rebelled against his father before he became King of England in 1189. He spent 9 years and 8 months of his reign in England and spoke only French. He was later overthrown by his brother John.
The Crusades (a multinational army of Roman Catholic crusaders enters Jerusalem, slaughtered its inhabitants, plundered it's shrines and raped its women - after nearly 90 years of 'Crusader' occupation Saladin retook Jerusalem in 1187