The reason that the British Government needed to establish a Penal Colony in a new Country was because the crime in Britain at the time was starting to increase and jails were starting to overcrowd thus they needed somewhere to send the prisoners (Dunn, C. n.d)
There were already natives on this new land discovered by Captain Cook. As the natives did not cultivate the land, meaning that they did not use the land for crops of gardening, the British government considered the land to be uncivilised (Dunn, C. n.d)
In May 1787 Captain Arthur Phillip led the first 11 ships known as the First Fleet from Britain and established the first Penal Colony in Australia, NSW (Dunn, C. n.d). Captain Arthur Phillip, the convicts, marine guards and others onboard arrived in mid-January 1788, hence the 26th of January being the official date to celebrate Australia day (Dunn, C. n.d)
Upon arrival the convicts found the country to be too hot and dry, very different to where they came from. They felt that the conditions would be unsuitable to make the settlement self-sufficient (Dunn, C. n.d).Unlike the natives on the land before them who lived off plants and fish, the settlers did not find the plants appetising (Dunn, C. n.d).
They also found that shelter was a problem as they were given limited tools to make appropriate living spaces. After more exploration of the land, they found that west of Sydney Cove made for better land for farming (Dunn, C. n.d).Ships were sent to other Countries for more supplies and after a few years, more ships started to arrive with more convicts and the expansion of our beautiful Country began (Dunn, C. n.d).