‘The Babylonian World Map, the earliest surviving map of the world (c. 600 BCE), is a symbolic, not a literal representation. It deliberately omits peoples such as the Persians and Egyptians, who were well known to the Babylonians. The area shown is depicted as a circular shape surrounded by water, which fits the religious image of the world in which the Babylonians believed.’
"Plimpton 322" -- Ancient Babylonian Mathematical Cuneiform Text -- 1900-1600 BCE -- Reveals that the Babylonians discovered a method of finding "Pythagorean Triples," i.e., sets of three whole numbers such that the square of them is the sum of the square of the other two. Discovered in Larsa, Iraq in 1920.