Sergei Nikolaievich Winogradsky (1 September 1856 – 25 February 1953) was a Ukrainian-Russian microbiologist, ecologist and soil scientist who pioneered the cycle of life concept. Winogradsky discovered the first known form of lithotrophy during his research with Beggiatoa in 1887. He reported that Beggiatoa oxidized hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as an energy source and formed intracellular sulfur droplets. This research provided the first example of lithotrophy, but not autotrophy.
On August 4, 1805, Irish mathematician William Rowan Hamilton was born, who invented the quaternions (i.e. an extension of the complex numbers) http://yovisto.blogspot.de/2013/08/william-hamilton-and-quaterions.html
James Chadwick 1935 Born: 20 October 1891, Manchester, United Kingdom Died: 24 July 1974, Cambridge, United Kingdom Affiliation at the time of the award: Liverpool University, Liverpool, United Kingdom Prize motivation: "for the discovery of the neutron" Field: Nuclear physics
On March 2, 1544, English diplomat and scholar Sir Thomas Bodley was born. His greatest achievement was the re-founding of the library at Oxford that was named in his honor. Moreover, he established new ideas and practices library of which also modern libraries stil benefit today.
On June 13, 1831, Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell was born. His most prominent achievement was formulating a set of equations that united previously unrelated observations, experiments, and equations of electricity, magnetism, and optics into a consistent theory. According to his theory he has demonstrated that electricity, magnetism and light are all manifestations of the same phenomenon, namely the electromagnetic field. This has been called the "second great unification in…