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Sergei Nikolaievich Winogradsky (1 September 1856 – 25 February 1953) was a Ukrainian-Russian microbiologist, ecologist and soil scientist who pioneered the cycle of life concept. Winogradsky discovered the first known form of lithotrophy during his research with Beggiatoa in 1887. He reported that Beggiatoa oxidized hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as an energy source and formed intracellular sulfur droplets. This research provided the first example of lithotrophy, but not autotrophy.