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Roman Kingdom 753–509 BC Roman Republic 509–27 BC Roman Empire 27 BC – AD 476 SPQR is an initialism from a Latin phrase, "The Senate and People of Rome", referring to the government of the ancient Roman Republic, and used as an official emblem of the modern-day comune (municipality) of Rome. It appears on coins, at the end of documents made public by inscription in stone or metal, in dedications of monuments and public works, and was emblazoned on the standards of the Roman legions.

from Vox

40 maps that explain the Roman Empire

Italy before Roman conquest In its early years, the Romans shared Italy with several other peoples. The dominant power in the neighborhood of Rome was the Etruscans. We don't know very much about these people, in part because we haven't figured out how to read their distinctive language. But the evidence suggests that Rome was ruled by Etruscan kings until the Romans revolted and established a republic — an event that is traditionally dated to 509 BC.

Buildings drawn in RED were built during the Roman Republic (509BC--27BC). Buildings drawn in BLACK were built during the Roman Empire (27BC--476AD). The existing ruins generally date from the final, Imperial period.

Центурион поздней Республики (примерно, эпоха Мария-Суллы).

from About.com Education

Tarquin the Proud - the Last King of Rome

Lucius Tarquinius Superbus; 7th and Last King of Rome (reign 535 – 509 BC) before the Roman Republic was formed

Floor of the senate, roman forum The Roman Senate was one of the most enduring institutions in Roman history, being founded in the first days of the city (traditionally founded in 753 BC). It survived the overthrow of the kings in 509 BC, the fall of the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC, the split of the Roman Empire in 395 AD, and the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD.