Roman Kingdom 753–509 BC Roman Republic 509–27 BC Roman Empire 27 BC – AD 476 SPQR is an initialism from a Latin phrase, "The Senate and People of Rome", referring to the government of the ancient Roman Republic, and used as an official emblem of the modern-day comune (municipality) of Rome. It appears on coins, at the end of documents made public by inscription in stone or metal, in dedications of monuments and public works, and was emblazoned on the standards of the Roman legions.
Floor of the senate, roman forum The Roman Senate was one of the most enduring institutions in Roman history, being founded in the first days of the city (traditionally founded in 753 BC). It survived the overthrow of the kings in 509 BC, the fall of the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC, the split of the Roman Empire in 395 AD, and the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD.
Buildings drawn in RED were built during the Roman Republic (509BC--27BC). Buildings drawn in BLACK were built during the Roman Empire (27BC--476AD). The existing ruins generally date from the final, Imperial period.
These patricians declared a that a new form of government would rule in Rome. This new form of government was called a republic. A republic is a type of government where a small group of elite leaders are elected as rulers.