Turkey, 1940-41. Hayreddin Barbarossa, or Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha (Turkish: Paşa or Hızır Hayreddin (Hayrettin) Paşa; also Hızır Reis before being promoted to the rank of Pasha and becoming the Kapudan Pasha. (1478-1546), was an Ottoman admiral of the fleet who was born in the Ottoman island of Midilli (Lesbos) and died in Constantinople (Istanbul), the Ottoman capital. Barbarossa's naval victories secured Ottoman dominance over the Mediterranean during the mid 16th century.
Tenth-century polymath Avicenna included the Hippocratic manipulative methods in his influential five-volume Canon of Medicine, published in numerous editions in Europe and used as a textbook in many medieval European medical schools.