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Marie of the Incarnation (Marie Guyart) 28 Oct 1599 - 30 Apr 1672 was a French Ursuline nun, at age 22 she came to New France to undertake the mission. Both the French colonists and the local people of the First Nations sought the education of their daughters by the nuns. The nuns were soon able to teach in the Huron, Algonkian, Montagnais, and Iroquois tongues. One of these children was my own ancestral grandmother Marie-Olivier-Sylvestre Manitouabeouich.

Canadians by Francis Back. Townspeople of the 1690s. Not the sort of things worn on campaign but many of the Miliciens who would have defended Quebec against Phips attack in 1690 would have looked like this.

"Indian and French Canadian, Market Place, Quebec" by John Crawford Young (1825-1827) at the National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa - While this is a 19th century depiction, the French-Canadians and the First Nations peoples have been borrowing from each other culturally ever since the earliest French colonization in Canada. It used to drive the French authorities and clergy nuts, seeing their colonists become far too "wild" for their tastes.

What does the word "Algonquin" mean? "Algonquin" was the French name for the tribe. The French were probably trying to pronounce elehgumoqik, the Maliseet word for "our allies," or Algoomaking, a Mi'kmaq place name. The Algonquins call themselves Anishnabe, which means "original person"

Private records or public history? The push to open up Buckingham Palace's archives

Documents held in the royal archives might shed more insight than has been publicly known so far on the run-up to the patriation of the Canadian Constitution, which culminated in Queen Elizabeth signing the proclamation on April 17, 1982, followed by then prime minister Pierre Trudeau.

While colonial French Canada may not have a plantation-based economy like the American South or the West Indies, slavery was still a fact of life, albeit on a smaller scale. However, the main source of slaves was not Africa, but First Nations people from further inland who had been captured via intertribal warfare by groups allied with the French. For instance, the person shown in this 1732 image was either Fox or Népissingué. Found via the Virtual Museum of New France.