Antique 1800s Medical Hemorrhoid Forceps Amputation Clamp Instrument with ox bone guards on one side of the blades. The blades interlock as they come together forcing the metal, crushig of the tissue. A spring on the back forces the blades open and a adjustible stop keeps them in locked position. Instrument has a wonderful nickel silver finish with some old flaking and spotting. Tool shows lots of medical history. ~salvart ebay
Artificial limbs from 1900 were decades ahead of their time
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Civil War Amputated Legs and Feet. National Archives. With overwhelming numbers of casualties, the amputation of injured limbs was standard treatment. "Primary" amputations (within 24 hours) had a 28% mortality rate. "Secondary" amputations (after 24 hours) rose to 52%. The most common killer infections that set in were tetanus, gangrene, pyemia, erysipela, and osteomyelitis. http://vermontcivilwar.org/medic/medicine3.php
Panel A is a drawing by Charles Bell from 1821 showing the circular method of amputation.9 Panel B shows the flap method of amputation being used in 1837, with an assistant retracting the tissue flap to allow the surgeon to saw through the femur.10