This was the reality for the thousands of convicts that would make their way to Australia. As slavery was outlawed, the U.K. needed a new source of free labor and found that using criminals was a great way to obtain free labor, lower the crime rate in the motherland, and hopefully keep convicts out of trouble.
Port Arthur guards, 1866. From the Allport Library and Museum of Fine Arts, Tasmania, and used on the Companion to Tasmanian History: http://www.utas.edu.au/library/companion_to_tasmanian_history/P/Port%20Arthur.htm
In 1842, when he was 14 years old, Henry Catlin was sentenced to be transported to Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania) for 14 years. He had stolen 3/6d (17 ½ pence). Henry arrived with the other 185 surviving prisoners on 23rd September 1843. He stayed on in Australia after he had served his sentence, and died in Victoria in 1918.